B3

TREATISE SANS A NARRATIVE

 While editing the compendium of essays to focus  towards articulating a security strategy for India,  Gurmeet Kanwalhas not really succeeded in  creating cohesive narrative. The New Arthshashtra  A Security Strategy for India, may have essays from  some of the best known names in the field of  strategy but merely bringing in the names does not  really create a cause
 for dialogue, create a viewpoint which emerges from  interaction or evolves an opinion based on consensus. When Kanwal’s compendium, published by Harper Collins, fails to integrate the view points of the contributing essayists, how can it blame the policy makers of having not been able to formulate a
security strategy for the country despite “having fought five wars and being hemmed by nuclear-armed” states.
The official summary of the book says, “India surprisingly does not have a formally declared national security strategy. All the major powers of the world publish documents that spell out their national interests, identify their threats - political, economic, diplomatic or with regard to security - and draw up policies
 to deal with them. The absence of a similar doctrine makes India’s defence policy look ad hoc and creates the impression that the country is unprepared to realize its global ambitions.”
The editor of the compendium claims that “The New Arthashastra” attempts to recommend a national security strategy for India. He claims that the book has done the difficult groundwork for India’s political leaders and policymakers by bringing the best names - from within the community as well as from the armed forces and academia - to the ideating table. Ideating is fine but debating the issues would have been better appreciated.                                                   Though to be fair this collection has 20 high-quality essays, which cover a wide range of topics from nuclear deterrence to defence spending, the domestic production of weapons, and bracing for the wars of the future that would be fought in space and cyberspace. As Kanwal says these essays are rooted in the expertise of analysts with inside-out knowledge of their domains.                                                                

B1

DECODING STATE OF POLITICS OF INDIAN NATION

 State politics has evolved as an autonomous discipline with growing recognition of state as the primary unit of analysis. Politics in each state has its own internal dynamics, which differentiates it from others. There has been a growing realization that future analysis of Indian politics must concentrate on micro level analysis of political actions and processes of mobilization at local level. The internal power dynamics of states define the political power play at the centre. Political dispensation at state level demands meticulous scrutiny as it has an enduring effect on political configuration at the centre. Micro level analysis of internal dynamics of state politics has therefore now become imperative for an understanding of Indian politics and economy. State politics is no more an appendage of the discipline of Indian politics but has emerged as an autonomous discipline. The book State Politics in India, edited by Himanshu Roy, M.P Singh et el is a reflection of the exalted status of study of state politics as an autonomous discipline. Politics in each state has its own internal dynamics, which differentiates it from other states multifacetedly. In India we have a common Nationality but then we also have a customary identity attached. An Indian is also Aryan, Dravidian, Tamil, Assamese, and Punjabi etc. India is home to four major religions of the world (Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism, and Sikhism,) and accommodates all the religion of the world. Caste is another reality in India and all major religions in India are further differentiated on caste lines. Caste plays a vital role in underlining cultural differences within religion. There is also wide diversity on linguistic lines; there are 22 languages in the Eighth Schedule of India’s Constitution and more than100 languages spoken by more than 10,000 people each. “Yet there are commonalities across the boundaries at micro and macro levels. The common linkages are the expansion and intensification of capitalism and its social relations into the innermost peripheral areas, breakdown of the old structures and social mores, emergence of civil society, development of administrative transparency, growth of alternative party systems and the linkages of each state with the global capital. The liberalization of economy over the decades has speeded up the growth of commonalities across the states through uniform production process and consumption culture. 

305

INDIAN EDUCATION: THE HALLMARK OF ‘ADAPTIVE ENTERPRISE'

I n a span of time, when memory is being erased and the political relevance of education is being dismissed in the language of measurement and quantification, Ashok K Pandey's groundbreaking 'The Pedagogical life (Essays on educating India)' seems to be the legacy in this stream. This book, consisting both passion and principle, would help the students to develop a consciousness of freedom. It also recognizes authoritarian tendencies, empowers the imagination, connects knowledge and truth to power and describes how the world as part of a broader struggle for agency, justice and democracy. While describing 'valuing education', the author categorically offers the very best, perhaps the only, chance for young people to develop and assert a sense of their rights and responsibilities to participate in governing, and not simply being governed by prevailing ideological and material forces.When the author states: "In the global world, cultures and nations, economies and businesses, come together in cooperation and competition. Education in India has shown, the true hallmark of 'Adaptive Enterprise': instead of sticking to the age-old approach to education, where some experts and learned scholars ordained what was good for one and all. Such was the model before and after Independence until well up to the nineties. In the earlier paradigm we followed 'make and sell' model and now we have entered in the era of a 'sense and respond' model," he wants to know the exact requirements regarding skills and competencies. When the author surveys the current state of education in India, he finds that most universities are now dominated by instrumentalist and conservative ideologies, hooked on methods, slavishly wedded to accountability measures and run by administrators who often lack a broader vision of education as a force for strengthening civic imagination and expanding democratic public life.